1. Located at Ezhimala, in the Kannur district of the state of Kerala, Indian Naval Academy (INA) is amongst the premier armed forces institutions of our country. It is through the hallowed portals of the INA that all officer-trainees joining the Indian Navy and the Indian Coast Guard pass, in their progression to join the officer-corps of their respective service. The academy follows a system of holistic training that caters to the physical, intellectual and socio-cultural development of each cadet. In preparing its trainees for the myriad challenges of military leadership that they will encounter at sea, on land, in the air, as also in both ‘outer’ and ‘inner’ (cyber) space, the INA actively promotes academic and professional excellence.
2. Named after the historic Mount Dilli located within INA premises, Dilli Series Seminar is conducted at INA during Autumn Term every year, with an aim to expose young trainees to the vibrant maritime history and arouse in them a curiosity that will motivate them to explore further. However, after conducting four editions of this Seminar on various maritime history topics, the need was felt to provide adequate exposure to cadets on the significance of sea power for a nation, which is felt necessary for future naval officers. Keeping this requirement at the milieu, the seminar has been rechristened as 'Dilli Series' Sea Power Seminar under the banner theme of ‘The Significance of Sea Power’.
3. The theme of the sixth edition of the seminar to be held at INA on 17-18 Oct 19, is ‘Role of Sea Power in Shaping Nations’. Papers are invited from serving as well as retired officers, academia, and cadets on the following sub themes: -
1. Sometime in the year 1788, while the rivalry between the two European powers, France and Britain, was still to reach fever pitch, Napoleon had scribbled in the margins of an old Turkish book about warfare that, “through Egypt we shall invade India, we shall re-establish the old route through Suez and cause the route by the Cape of Good Hope to be abandoned
”. Ten years hence, Napoleon’s dream remained unrealised – not only had the French, negotiating as they were with Tipu Sultan, not been able to chart the ‘old route through the Suez’, the entire French fleet had been sunk by Admiral Nelson at the Aboukir Bay, wrecking Napoleon’s hopes of using Egypt as a secure base from which to attack India. The outcome of this had wide ramifications for both British and French presence in India- as, hinging at the cusp of Napoleon’s arrival were not only the hopes of Tipu Sultan, but the question of who shall dominate the proceedings of the Nizam’s Court hereafter. In effect, Napoleon’s defeat heralded the English as India’s colonial masters for the next 150 years.
2. Since the dawn of the modern age, control of the seas has been central to global politics. Philosopher Carl Schmitt, in his influential book, Nomos of the Earth, describes the rise of the Sea Powers through three stages: ancient civilizations first ruled river systems. Rome and Venice then dominated the Mediterranean Sea. Subsequently, powers like Portugal, Holland and England came to dominate the world’s oceans. Nations with Sea power have a specific mind-set: they favour openness, global free trade, individualism and enterprise. The United States is the contemporary heir of the oceanic sea powers.
3. Throughout modern history, Sea Powers have been opposed by land-based powers: Napoleon’s France, Czarist Russia, Imperial Germany and the Soviet Union. Land powers are more inward-looking and they emphasize community, collective action, security and strong central rule. After the fall of the previous great land power, the Soviet Union, US-led sea power has dominated the world. But now this is changing and the great surprise of the 21st century mark a shift in the relation between land and sea.
4. We would request participants to delve into the tenacious, somewhat cyclic, push-and-pull relationship between Sea Powers and Land Powers and how competitive and collaborative engagements between the two at various junctures have contributed to the wider course of history.
(Refer Para 3(b))
SUB THEME : SEA POWER AND GEOECONOMICS
1. China had entered 2014 imagining that its rising economic clout could empower it to make a geopolitical move in Asia. The geopolitical stand-off it initiated with Japan and its other Southern-eastern neighbours in the South China Sea camp up against China’s own economic interests in the region, nudging Beijing to take one step back after having taken two forward. Thereafter, it created geo-economics interdependencies, with its export-oriented industrial strategy, all across the IOR and South China Sea. So then, it becomes apparent that when speaking of modern day geo-economics, and its interaction with state power, especially Sea Power, one is likely to trudge into a complex, contentious, and ever dynamic realm.
2. However, putting things in perspective, the term Geo-economics has been a relatively new entrant into jargon that dominates academic and Strategy Study circles today. It would be interesting to note that the concept was originally developed by Edward Luttwak in 1990 during the end of the Cold War. Luttwak was focused upon the idea of ‘winning the geo-economics struggle for industrial supremacy’. His seminal book, The Endangered American Dream: How to Stop the United States from Becoming a Third World Country and Win the Geo-Economic Struggle for Industrial Supremacy, was an attempt to compare American Capitalism with Japan’s Industrial policy.
3. Bruce Bartlett, a Wall Street Journal writer and historian wrote of Luttwak’s book: “Luttwak’s latest book, The Endangered American Dream, is an effort to analyse economic policy in a geopolitical framework. Political competition between states, which formerly took place in the military and diplomatic area, will now take place in the economic sphere. The goal is no longer to conquer territory, but to increase the market share of companies that happen to be based in one’s country. It is Luttwak’s mission to convince the reader that the outcome of this competition is just as important as the cold war’s military and diplomatic conflicts. In effect, he argues, it is just as important for General Motors to defeat Honda and Mercedes Benz as it was for the United States to win the Cuban missile crises and the blockade of Berlin”.
4. In the industrial age, technologically advanced companies such as Apple, Baidu and Ali Baba or entire industries are seen as potent instruments of State Power. Thus it can be surmised to be not more or less than the continuation for the ancient rivalry of the nations by new industrial means. Just as in the past when young men were put in uniform to be marched off in pursuit of schemes of territorial conquest, today taxpayers are persuaded to subsidize schemes of industrial conquest. Juxtaposing the existence of the global commons on the narrative of Geo-economics further destabilises the issue, and makes it seem more contentious. China’s geopolitical and geo-economics ambition in the South China Sea, and India’s in the IOR and its rim states, stand testimony to this.
5. We request our potential authors to delve into the various nuances of geopolitics, geo-economics and its interlinking dynamics with State Power, preferably manifested as Sea Power, and how complex interactions between the three have affected, and are likely to affect the modern day International relations.
(Refer Para 3(c))
SUB THEME : CENTRALITY OF SEA POWER TO GLOBAL POLITICS
1. Navigating through the international relations reveals that global power perceptions have historically been associated with maritime might at the disposal of a nation. In the post WW2 era, the question ‘Who exercises leadership in Global Politics?’ and ‘Why?’ constitute large questions of analysis and interpretation that cannot be resolved solely by reference to one data set. But as has become conspicuous in the historical arc of modern world history, data on naval strength does illuminate these questions and holds one of the keys to answering it. Navies are not the only important facet of leadership, but they also form a crucial, politico-strategy factor in conjunction with other factors such as economic, social and cultural, thereby laying the foundations for global reach and implementation. One of the foremost strategists, George Modelski, in his influential book, Sea Power in Global Politics
remarks, “the advent of the modern world system was at the same time also the onset of use and control of the sea on a global scale, hence the opening of an entirely new age of Sea Power. The Age of Discovery and era of colonisation was made possible by leveraging exclusively the hard power dimension of the sea power by the western imperial nations”. Given the fact that, today, the hard power and soft power elements often interact in tandem with each other towards the fulfilment of national interest, Sea Power is an ideal foreign policy instrument to exercise influence over countries. Sea power with its global reach can be a nation’s ‘Iron fist in a velvet glove’ and can easily send out the message of ‘carrot’ for amicable nations and ‘stick/ punishment’ against belligerent ones.
2. Further, global reach is a necessary condition in unravelling the ranking of global power. A historical study of the process of concentration and de-concentration of sea power is critical to the understanding of the structure of global politics, world system and behaviours of nation states over time.
3. Sea power, global leadership and world’s politico-economic history have been closely related. Therefore, it’s fascinating to understand how sea power has shaped the destiny of nations and the world we live in today. We urge our potential authors to focus on the centrality of the Sea Power in shaping global politics particularly in the ‘post Westphalian’ international world order.
(Refer Para 5)
Contributors are requested to follow the Guidelines given below:-
1. The paper should be composed in 12 point Arial single spaced font for the main body of the text, and 10.5 point Arial single spaced font for footnotes using MS Word 2003 and above. The tentative length of the paper should be 2000 – 5000 words (excluding footnotes, acknowledgements, title and sub title). Use footnotes at the end of each page.
2. An Abstract of about 200-300 words should be included to describe the main argument and the conclusions of the paper. The Abstract cannot contain footnote references.
3. The first sheet should carry details of the author’s biodata (a brief resume of about 200 words), institutional affiliation, a passport-size photograph and the mailing and email address.
4. A Certificate of Authenticity, countersigned by the author, with the following details should accompany the paper:-
“The paper is the original effort of (author’s name, rank, personal number) and the undersigned hereby attest that all material (tables, figures, diagrams, arguments) from primary and secondary sources has been duly cited. The paper bears no Plagiarism in any form. The paper has not been sent to any other publication and has not appeared in print or electronic medium before. The text of the paper does not contain any material above Unclassified.”
5. All diagrams, charts and graphs should be referred to as Figures and consecutively numbered (Fig.1, Fig.2, and so on). Tables should carry only essential data and should complement the text rather that repeat what has already been said. They should carry a short title, be numbered (Table 1) and carry the source at the bottom.
6. Each table must be referenced in the text. If actual statements or phrases are taken from another paper, the name of the author should be mentioned in the text and the chosen material should be placed within quotation marks with an appropriate reference. Alternatively, if another author’s views are to be summarized, use the formulations: ‘The views of xyz are summarized’; give a crisp summary. It is a good practice to reference sources of information extensively and effectively.
7. Author’s acknowledgment(s) may be included at the end of the paper and before References/ Endnotes begin.
8. The paper should have sub-headings to make it more reader-friendly.
Base Style Guide.
9. Use short, crisp sentences; they add to readability.
10. Use British spelling (colour, organisation, etc).
11. Write dates in the following format: for 12 September 2018, write 12 Sep 18. However, for dates 20th century and below i.e. 17 February 1818, write 17 Feb 1818, or for 12 December 1621, write it as 12 Dec 1621.
12. In the text, write numbers in words till the number nine and then in numerals (e.g. two, four, nine; then 10,11,12 and so on).
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14. Acronyms should carry the full form at the first mention with the acronym in bracket; and thereafter, the abbreviated version. For eg. The United Nations (UN) declared that…Thereafter, the UN did not…
15. Names of books, journals, newspapers and foreign term in the body of the text should appear in italics, eg: Asian Security in the 21st Century, Strategic Analysis, The Hindu.
16. While referring to currency, use ₹ 2,000 crores, not 2000 crores of rupees. Similarly, $ 8.5 million, nor 8.5 million dollars.
17. Use lower case while referring to establishments like the government, the army, and so on. Use upper case if these are accompanied by the name of the country (e.g; the Indian Government or the Chinese Army). The president or prime minister stays lower, unless they are accompanied by the name (eg: Prime Minister Tony Blair or External Affairs Minister Natwar Singh).
18. References/ Endnotes should be sequentially numbered.
19. The authors are responsible for accuracy of the reference.
20. Following is to be kept in mind while citing the works in references:-
(a) While referring to a book (follow the example below).
Padmaja Murthy, Managing Suspicions: Understanding India’s Relations with Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Knowledge World
New Delhi, 2000, pp.59-67.
(b) While referring to a chapter in a book.
Meena Singh Roy, “Building a peaceful Asia, in Jasjit Singh(ed.), Reshaping Asian Security, Knowledge World, New Delhi, 2000
(c) While referring to a paper in a journal.
P.R. Rajeshwari, “Bill Richardson’s Visit South Asia: A New Phase in US-South Asia Relations”, Journal of Strategic Affairs, 36(19)
May 2, 1988, pp. 26-26.
(d) While referring to a paper presented at a conference.
R.V. Phadke, “Security of Energy,” Paper presented at the International Conference on Oil and Gas in India’s Security, New Delhi, 2001
pp. 82-86, Institute for Defence Studies and Analysis, New Delhi, 2001.
(e) While referring to an article in a newspaper.
Kulbir Krishan, “The Pearl Abduction: who and why?” Pioneer, New Delhi, February 12, 2002, p.7.
(f) While referring to a website.
Excerpts to remarks of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif on Nuclear policies at the CTBT,” www.clw.org/pub/clw/coalition/sharif052099.htm
(Accessed February 2, 2005).
21. If two successive citations/ references refer to the same source, use Ibid.
22. If the same reference is to be cited after a few other references/ citations, write the name of the author followed by the citation number e.g.: Ram Kumar no.16.
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